UPSC Malayalam Optional Syllabus For IAS Mains PDF 2023!

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UPSC Optional Malayalam Literature Paper 1 And 2 Syllabus PDF 2023 Free Download

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(Answers must be written in Malayalam) Section A

1—Early phase of Malayalam Language :

  1. Various theories: Origin from proto Dravidian, Tamil, Sanskrit.
  1. Relation between Tamil and Malayalam: Six nayas of A. R. Rajarajavarma.
  1. Pattu School—Definition, Ramacharitam, later pattu works—Niranam works and Krishnagatha. 2—Linguistic features of :
    1. Manipravalam—definition. Language of early manipravala works—Champu, Sandesakavya, Chandrotsava, minor works. Later manipravala works—medieval Champu and Attakkatha.
    1. Folklore—Southern and Northern ballads, Mappila songs.
  • Early Malayalam Prose—Bhashakautaliyam, Brahmandapuranam, Attaprakaram, Kramadipika and Nambiantamil.

3—Standardisation of Malayalam :

  • Peculiarities of the language of Pana, Kilippattu and Tullal.
  • Contributions of indigenous and European missionaries to Malayalam.
  • Characteristics of contemporary Malayalam; Malayalam as administrative language. Language of scientific and technical literature—media language.


4—Ancient and Medieval Literature :

  • Pattu—Ramacharitam, Niranam Works and Krishnagatha.
  • Manipravalam—early and medieval manipravala works including attakkatha and champu.
  • Folk Literature.
  • Kilippattu, Tullal and Mahakavya. 5—Modern Literature—Poetry :
    • Venmani poets and contemporaries.
  • The advent of Romanticism—Poetry of Kavitraya i.e., Asan, Ulloor and Vallathol.
  • Poetry after Kavitraya.
  • Modernism in Malayalam Poetry. 6—Modern Literature—Prose :
  • Drama.
  • Novel.
  • Short story.
  • Biography, travelogue, essay and criticism.


(Answers must be written in Malayalam)

This paper will require first-hand reading of the texts prescribed and is designed to test the candidate’s critical ability.

Section A

Unit 1

  1. Ramacharitam—Patalam 1.
  1. Kannassaramayanam—Balakandam first 25 stanzas.
  1. Unnunilisandesam—Purvabhagam 25 slokas including Prastavana.
  1. Mahabharatham Kilippattu—Bhishmaparvam. Unit 2
    1. Kumaran Asan—Chintavisthayaya Sita.
  • Vailoppilli—Kutiyozhikkal.
  • G. Sankara Kurup—Perunthachan.
  • N. V. Krishna Variar—Tivandiyile pattu. Unit 3
    • O. N. V.—Bhumikkoru Charamagitam.
  • Ayyappa Panicker—Kurukshetram.
  • Akkittam—Pandatha Messanthi.
  • Attur Ravivarma—Megharupan.

Unit 4

  • O. Chanthu Menon—Indulekha.
  • Thakazhy—Chemmin.
  • O. V. Vijayan—Khasakkinte Ithihasam.

Section B

Unit 5

  • M. T. Vasudevan Nair—Vanaprastham (Collection).
  • N. S. Madhavan—Higvitta (Collection).
  • C. J. Thomas—1128-il Crime 27. Unit 6
  • Kuttikrishna Marar—Bharataparyatanam.
  • M. K. Sanu—Nakshatrangalute Snehabhajanam.
  • V. T. Bhatttathirippad—Kannirum Kinavum.

End Lines

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